GEZERLIS, Alexandros. The ’Objectivity’ of a Liberatory Project and the Issue of ’Leaders’:

- in the Sequel of the Marx-Proudhon Exchange.


Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of

Inclusive Democracy, 10855661, Nov. 2000, Vol. 6, Issue 3


"Inclusive democracy" is defined as "direct political democracy, economic democracy (beyond the confines of the market economy and state planning), as well as democracy in the social realm and ecological democracy. In short, inclusive democracy is a form of social organization which re-integrates society with economy, polity and nature".

The author examines how the quest for "objectivity", particularly through "science", and leadership may deteriorate a liberatory project. The reliance on science (Kropotkin), on an objective history or ethics creates a hierarchical social structure based on the "knowledge" of truth.

Ideas, including Marxism or Proudhonism, also reflect the particular character of their protagonists. Their transformation into a definitive, "finished" theory creates a closed and heteronomous system of beliefs.

Character formation and constant self-institutioning are the founding principles of a democracy