– Kahn and Averill, 1990. 160 p. ISBN: 1871082161 paperback.
– Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, 1996. 162 p. ISBN: 1871082161
Canadian anthropologist Harold Barclay has examined the anarchic political structures of hunting, gathering and horticultural groups. He suggests a multicausal approach that may explain the appearance of the state, none of which is sufficient or even necessary.
Contrarily to other system of rulers, the state remains permanent. Its disappearance could only occur if people succeeded in mastering the resources which are controled by state and capital.